What the Media Won’t Tell You About Stem Cell Research
Posted by ssbg on July 24, 2006
July 12, 2005 (Updated: September 27, 2005)
by Dawn Vargo
New studies threaten to undermine everything you’ve been told about embryonic stem cell research. The following is a must read for anyone interested in the whole story on stem cell research.
The debate over stem cell research is raging across the nation and echoing through chambers of Congress and state legislatures. Most people have heard just enough to offer an opinion to friends and neighbors; yet, the information they receive is incomplete and often inaccurate.Every new study on embryonic stem cells produces an onslaught of optimistic articles confidently proclaiming that with just a little more time and a lot more public money embryonic stem cells will provide cures for dozens of diseases and hope for millions of sick patients. Meanwhile, stories highlighting adult stem cell successes seem less optimistic and much less prominent. Casual observers might reasonably conclude that embryonic stem cells hold the most promise while adult stem cells are of secondary interest. They would be wrong.
Embryonic stem cells are often touted as the most promising research option because they are a “blank slate” capable of differentiating (changing and specializing) into all the cells of the body. Less well known is that adult stem cells have the same ability to change into every kind of cell, tissue, and organ in the body. Yes, you read that correctly: one of the main reasons embryonic stem cells are flaunted as the gold standard in research is their ability to change into every cell type. Yet, adult stem cells have the same capacity.
In other words, adult stem cells can do everything embryonic stem cells can do:
1. Adult stem cells are flexible: Like embryonic ones, they can change into every cell type of the body. Rsearchers often refer to this ability to specialize into every cell type as pluripotency.
2. Adult stem cells’ flexibility show new potential to treat disease: Studies demonstrate that in addition to diseases already being treated with adult stem cells, the recently discovered and often ignored flexibility of adult stem cells offer additional possibilities to cure disease.
Contrary to the exclusive claims of embryonic stem cell proponents, the following compilation of research demonstrates the flexibility of adult stem cells to transform into a wide range of specialized cells – just like embryonic ones.
Differentiate – a scientific word to describe how something changes and specializes. Normally used to describe how “young” cells change into mature cells with special functions.
Germ layer – within a developing embryo, there are three germ layers that provide the ability for the embryo to change into all the cells of the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to change into cells from all three germ layers – this means they can differentiate into every part of the body. There are three distinct germ layers in humans: endoderm (internal layer), mesoderm (middle layer), and ectoderm (external layer).
Conventional knowledge says that adult stem cells are not as promising as embryonic stem cells because they lack these embryonic germ layers that can form all of the body’s 200+ cells (skin cells, muscle tissue, internal organs, etc). However, a growing body of research shows that adult stem cells have an “embryonic” ability to differentiate.
Adult stem cells – there is a wide variety of adult stem cells including bone marrow stem cells, nasal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, etc. These types of adult stem cells are normally identified by where they are located (bone marrow stem cells are found in bone marrow, blood stem cells in the blood, etc).
Flexible Stem Cells
The following summaries document the ability of adult stem cells to develop into cells outside of their original cell family.1
• Baby teeth are a rich source of stem cells. Stem cells from dental pulp can differentiate into neural, fat, and tooth-forming cells.2
• Adult stem cells taken from the blood can differentiate into liver and nerve cells.3
• White blood cells taken from patients can produce other types of stem cells; newly formed cells included red and white blood cells, nerve cells and heart muscle.4
• Bone marrow stem cells can make significant amounts of new lung tissue.5
• Bone marrow stem cells can change into epithelial cells when transplanted into the lung.6
• Bone marrow stem cells can be put into various tissues and organs. This research could provide a model for future lung stem cell work.7
• Bone marrow stem cells from men were implanted into women. They found that the women had brain cells with the Y chromosome. This shows that bone marrow stem cells can turn into brain cells.8
• A specific type of cells (multipotent adult progenitor cells – MAPCs) has been found in bone marrow. These can specialize into cells from all three germ layers. This study found that these cells can be isolated not only from bone marrow but also from brain and muscle tissue.9
• Stem cells from bone marrow have the capacity to develop into all cell types in the human body including those that make up the glands, digestive tract, hair, skin, nails, brain, nervous system, and muscle. 10
• Bone marrow stem cells can turn into nerve cells; contrary to previous belief, these bone marrow stem cells did not merely fuse with nerve cells, they changed into nerve cells without any cell fusion.11
• Pluripotent (able to change into all cell types) bone marrow stem cells can change into insulin-secreting cells.12
• Researchers in Miami once again found that bone marrow stem cells can change into all cells of the body.13
• A single bone marrow stem cell can turn into marrow, blood, liver, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, heart, and skeletal muscle.14
• Cells taken from the bone marrow are able to generate new egg production in the ovaries. This finding has significant implications for the long-held belief that females are born with a limited number of eggs that declines throughout life15
• Cord blood cells, a type of adult (also known as non-embryonic) stem cells that come from the umbilical cords of newborns, contain mesenchymal stem cells. These mesenchymal stem cells can change into skeletal muscle cells.16
• A special type of umbilical cord blood stem cells (called unrestricted somatic stem cells – USSCs) can change into all cells from all three germ layers. This means they can specialize into all of the cells in the body including brain, bone, cartilage, liver, heart, and blood cells.17
• A recently discovered type of cord blood stem cells, cord-blood-derived embryonic-like stem cells or CBEs, have the capability of turning into any kind of body tissue 18
• Stem cells found in the outer lining of the umbilical cord have been successfully differentiated into specific cells such as skin, bone and fat.19
• Stem cells from the inner ear were able to change into the three major cell types of the body (all three germ layers).20
• Liver stem cells can specialize into pancreatic cells. This demonstrates that stem cells from one part of the body (liver) can change into cells from a completely different part of the body (pancreas).21
• A specific type of adult stem cells, human mesenchymal stem cells, have the ability to self-renew on a long-term basis. They also have the flexibility to specialize into cells from all three germ layers.22
• Muscle stem cells have the capacity to change into blood stem cells.23
• Nasal stem cells can develop into heart, liver, kidney, muscle, brain, and nerve cells.24
• A specific type of early embryonic stem cells (epidermal neural crest cells – eNCSC) are found in adult hair follicles and show a high degree of flexibility.25
• Neural stem cells can change into a broad array of cells within and without the central nervous system. Two types of cells that can be formed from neural stem cells are skeletal muscle and blood cells.26
• Neural stem cells were isolated from the cerebellum region of the brain and showed the ability to renew and differentiate into several types of neural cells in the brain 27
• Pancreatic stem cells can specialize into muscle cells, neurons, and insulin-producing cells.28
• A type of stem cells found in the placenta (amniotic epithelial cells) has the potential to change into all three germ layers.29
• Stem cells in the uterus can be grown into bone, muscle, fat, and cartilage.30
• Cells from human scalp tissue are able to change into a wide variety of cells – including cells in different cell families like neural, bone, and cartilage cells.31
Flexible Stem Cells for Treating Diseases
The recognition that adult stem cells possess the flexibility to change into all types of body cells has led to a variety of models to treat disease – treatments that are currently unattainable with embryonic stem cells.
Not only can adult stem cells change and specialize into all cell types, they also out-perform embryonic stem cells when it comes to treating disease. Research with adult stem cells is steadily producing positive results that demonstrate the ability to treat disease. The proven track record of adult stem cells provides a striking contrast to their embryonic counterparts which have never treated a single patient. For examples of adult stem cell treatments currently being used in human patients, see Adult Stem Cells: It’s Not Pie-In-the-Sky
Bone Marrow Stem Cells to treat:
• Bone marrow stem cells transplanted into the pancreas can morph into insulin-producing beta islet cells. Insulin levels increased. This discovery may help treat people with Type 1 Diabetes by eliminating the need for daily injections of insulin.32
• The discovery that bone marrow stem cells can change into insulin secreting cells is an important step toward curing diabetes.33
• Bone marrow stem cells can help repair damaged heart muscle by helping the heart develop new, functional tissue.34
• Bone marrow stem cells placed in damaged hearts (after a heart attack) improved the hearts’ pumping ability by 80%.35
• Bone marrow stem cells can help regenerate damaged heart tissue.36
• Stem cells from bone marrow restored heart function and repaired damaged heart muscle by 50-75%.37
• Bone marrow stem cells were used to treat heart disease with no abnormal cell growth.38
• The process of human clinical trials is underway for patients with heart disease to be injected with bone marrow-derived stem cells during heart bypass surgery.39
• Stress on the body can trigger adult stem cells to change into specialized cells that migrate to the damaged area and help repair the injury. For example, a damaged liver can send signals to bone marrow stem cells which respond by creating liver cells for the damaged liver.40
Strokes and other neurodegenerative diseases
• MAPCs can change into neuron-like cells in mice that have experienced strokes.41
Brain Stem Cells to treat:
• Functioning neurons produced from adult brain stem cells provide potential to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease.42
Cord Blood Stem Cells to treat:
• Injections of cold blood stem cells into 9-year-old twins with cerebral palsy increased their ability to speak, decreased their leg cramps and allowed them to sit up unassisted.43
Hepatitis and Heart Damage
• Patients suffering from hepatitis and heart injury can be treated with umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants.44
• A young boy with Hurler’s Syndrome was successfully treated with cord blood cells (as well as enzyme-replacement therapy).45
• Cord blood stem cells have the capability to treat liver diseases.46
• Umbilical cord blood stem cells from humans can change into liver cells in rats with damaged livers. 47
• Human cord blood stem cells can improve liver renewal by transforming into liver cells that can aid in regeneration.48
Fat Stem Cells to treat:
• Stem cells from fat, called adipose-dreived stem cells, were able to repair and minimize heart damage.49
Intestinal Stem Cells to treat:
• Adult stem cells from the intestine were converted into insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreases of diabetic mice.50
Mesenchymal Stem Cells to treat:
Acute Renal Failure
• Mesenchymal stem cells (a specific type of adult stem cells) injected into kidneys demonstrated an almost immediate improvement in kidney function and cell renewal.51
• Human mesenchymal stem cells were used to reconstruct damaged corneas.52
• Stem cells derived from bone marrow were found to be important for lung repair and protection against lung injury.53
• Stem cells derived from bone marrow developed into neural cells that hold promise to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and spinal cord injuries 54
Mouth Stem Cells to treat:
• 8 out of 9 patients that had mouth stem cells placed in their eyes (cornea) recovered their sight.55
Muscle Stem Cells to treat:
• Muscle stem cells from thigh muscles were used to successfully treat four men with end-stage heart failure.56
• Human muscle stem cells have been used to cure urinary incontinence in animal models; human trials are now in progress.57
Neural Stem Cells to treat:
• Adult neural stem cells were unexpectedly found to treat an MS-like disease by suppressing the immune attacks that damage the brain and spinal cord tissues.58
Spleen Stem Cells to treat:
• The spleen is a substantial source of stem cells and stem cell extracted from the spleen can change into insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells. This could yield a cure for Type 1 Diabetes.59
These findings cast substantial doubt on claims that embryonic stem cells are the best investment for our time, money and resources. In fact, these studies shift the burden to embryonic stem cell researchers to prove that their research is important to finding treatments and cures for disease. Scientific research and current medical therapies unquestionably reveal that adult stem cells are most promising research option.
These summaries significantly simplify the findings in the original studies. Like any overview of a complex topic, oversimplifications are inevitable. This document attempts to provide the most accurate information in easily understandable terms.
Dawn Vargo is a research assistant in the Public Policy Division of Focus on the Family.
1Lead researchers: A. Gritti and R. Galli, Institute for Cell Research, PubMed 2002;171(1):64-76, PMID: 12021492 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE], “Adult Neural Stem Cells: Plasticity and Developmental Potential” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieveanddb=PubMedandlist_uids=12021492anddopt=Abstract
2Lead researcher: Songtao Shi, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) May 13, 2003 | vol. 100 | no. 10 | 5807-5812, “SHED: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth,” http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/10/5807?view=abstract
3Lead researcher: Eliezer Huberman, Argonne National Laboratory, PNAS | March 4, 2003 | vol. 100 | no. 5 | 2426-2431, “A Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte-derived Subset Acts as Pluripotent Stem Cells,” http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/5/2426?view=abstract
4Lead researcher: Dr. Saleh Abuljadayel, TriStem Corporation, London, Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2003; 19(5): 355-375, “Induction of Stem Cell-like Plasticity in Mononuclear Cells Derived from Unmobilised Adult Human Peripheral Blood.” Research conducted with human stem cells.
5Lead researcher: Benjamin Suratt, University of Vermont College of Medicine, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 168. pp. 318-322, (2003). http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/168/3/318, “Human Pulmonary Chimerism after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.” Research conducted with mice.
6Lead researcher: Diane S. Krause, Yale University School of Medicine, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. vol. 27 (2002): 645-651, “Marrow-Derived Cells as Vehicles for Delivery of Gene Therapy to Pulmonary Epithelium,” doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2002-0056RC, http://ajrcmb.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/6/645. Research conducted with mice.
7Lead researcher: D.N. Kotton, Boston University School of Medicine, Experimental Hematology April 2004 vol 32, issue 4: 340-342, “Lung stem cells: new paradigms”
8Mezey E et al, Prceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Transplanted Bone Marrow Generates New Neurons in Human Brains, February 2003
9Jiang Y, Vaessen B, Lenvik T, Blackstad M, Reyes M, Verfaillie CM. Multipotent progenitor cells can be isolated from postnatal murine bone marrow, muscle, and brain. Exp Hematol. 2002 Aug;30(8):896-904. Stem Cell Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455, USA. Research conducted with mice.
10Young-sup Yoon, Doug Losordo, Biotech Week, Caritas St. Elizabeth’s: Unique Stem Cell Identified, Feb 23, 2005; Yoon Y-s et al, Clonally Expanded Novel Multipotent Stem Cells from Human Bone Marrow Regenerate Myocardium after Myocardial Infarcation, Journal of Clinical Investigation, February 2005
11Crain BJ, Tran SD, Mezey E, Transplanted Human Bone Marrow Cells Generate New Brain Cells, Journal of Neural Science, June 15 2005.
12Moriscot C et al, Stem Cells, Human Bone Marrow Mesnchymal Stem Cells can Express Insulin and key Transcription Factors of the endocrine Pancreas Developmental Pathway upon Genetic and.or Microenvrionmental Manipualation In Vitro, 2005
13D’Ippolito G et al, Journal of Cell Science, Marrow-isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) Cells, A Unique Population of Postnatal Young and Old Human Cells with Extensive Expansion and Differentation Potential, July 15, 2004
14Krause DS et al, Cell, Multi-Organ, Multi-Lineage Engraftment by a Single Bone Marrow-derived Stem Cell, May 2001
15 Johnson, Joshua et al., Oocyte generation in Adult Mammalian Ovaries by Putative Germ Cells in Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood, Cell Vol 122, 1-13, July 29, 2005; Stem Cells in Bone Marrow Replenish Mouse Ovaries, EurakAlert!, July 27, 2005.
16Eun Ji Gang, Ju Ah Jeong, Seung Hyun Hong, Soo Han Hwang, Seong Whan Kim, Il Ho Yang, Chiyoung Ahn, Hoon Han, Hoeon Kim, “Skeletal Myogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood”
Research Institute of Biotechnology, Histostem Co. Kangdong-gu, Seoul, Korea
17Kogler G et al., Journal of Experimental Medicine, A New Human Somatic Stem Cell from Placental Cord Blood with Intrincis Pluripotent Differentiation Potential, July 2004.
18Price, Joyce Howard, Advance made in Stem-Cell Debate, The Washington Times, August 20, 2005; Coghlan, Andy, Cord Blood Yields ‘Ethical’ Embryonic Stem Cells, New Scientist, August 18, 2005; Olsen, Stefanie, Microgravity Tech Could Sway Stem Cell Debate, The New York Times, August 18, 2005.
19Biotech Firm Discovers New Source of Stem Cells, Medical News Service, July 12, 2005.
20Li H et al, Nature Medicine, Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Inner Ear, October 2003
21Lijun Yang, Shiwu Li, Heather Hatch, Kim Ahrens, Janet G. Cornelius, Bryon E. Petersen, and Ammon B. Peck In vitro trans-differentiation of adult hepatic [liver] stem cells into pancreatic endocrine hormone-producing cells Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 12, 8078-8083, June 11, 2002. Research conducted with rats.
22Hong SH, et.al., In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 May 20;330(4):1153-61. Research Institute of Biotechnology, Histostem Co., Seoul, Republic of Korea. (The specialized into mesenchyme-related multipotency, neuroectodermal, endodermal cells.)
23Goodell MA, Jackson KA, Majka SM, Mi T, Wang H, Pocius J, Hartley CJ, Majesky MW, Entman ML, Michael LH, Hirschi KK. Stem cell plasticity in muscle and bone marrow. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;938:208-18; discussion 218-20. Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, N1030, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. Research conducted with adult mice.
24Murrell W et al., Multipotent Stem Cells from Adult Olfactory Mucosa, Developmental Dynamics, June 2005.
25Sieber-Blum M, Grim M, Hu YF, Szeder V. Pluripotent neural crest stem cells in the adult hair follicle. Dev Dyn. 2004 Oct;231(2):258-69. Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.
26Lead researchers: A. Gritti and R. Galli, Institute for Cell Research, PubMed 2002;171(1):64-76, PMID: 12021492 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE], “Adult Neural Stem Cells: Plasticity and Developmental Potential” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieveanddb=PubMedandlist_uids=12021492anddopt=Abstract. Research conducted with mice.
27 Lee, Audra, Jessica D Kessler, Tracy-Ann Read, Constanze Kaiser (Department of Pharmacology & Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center), Denis Corbeil, Wieland B Huttner (Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics), Jane E Johnson, Robert J Wchsler-Reyal (Center for Basic Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center), Isolation Neural Stem Cells from the Postnatal Cerebellum, Nature Neuroscience, 723-729, 2005.
28Kruse C et al, Applied Physics, Pluripotency of Adult Stem Cells Derived from Human and Rat Pancreas, November 2004
29Miki, Toshio, Lehmann, Thomas, Cai, Hongbo, Stolz, Donna B, Strom, Stephen, Stem Cell Characteristics of Amniotic Epithelial Cells, Stem Cells, published online August 4, 2005; Spice, Byron, Option to Stem Cells Found, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 5, 2005.
30Australian Discovery of Adult Stem Cells in the Uterus, Medical Research News, July 19, 2005.
31Tzu-bi Shih, Daniel, et al., Isolation and Characterization of Neurogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Scalp Tissue, Stem Cells, Vol. 23 No 7, pp. 1012-1020. August 2005.
32Lead researcher: Dr. Mehbood A. Hussain, New York University, Journal of Clinical Investigation March 2003 vol. 111 No. 6, “In Vivo Derivation of Glucose-competent Pancreatic Endocrine Cells from Bone Marrow without Evidence of Cell Fusion.” Research conducted with mice.
33Moriscot C et al, Stem Cells, Human Bone Marrow Mesnchymal Stem Cells can Express Insulin and key Transcription Factors of the endocrine Pancreas Developmental Pathway upon Genetic and.or Microenvrionmental Manipualation In Vitro, 2005
34Goodell MA, Jackson KA, Majka SM, Mi T, Wang H, Pocius J, Hartley CJ, Majesky MW, Entman ML, Michael LH, Hirschi KK. Stem cell plasticity in muscle and bone marrow. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;938:208-18; discussion 218-20. Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, N1030, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. Research conducted with adult mice.
35Lead researcher: Dr. Victor Dzau, Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Nature Medicine Journal September 2003 vol. 9 no. 9: 1195-1201 doi:10.1038/nm912, “Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modified with Akt Prevent Remodeling and Restore Performance of Infarcted Hearts.” Research conducted with rats.
36Young-sup Yoon, Doug Losordo, Biotech Week, Caritas St. Elizabeth’s: Unique Stem Cell Identified, Feb 23, 2005; Yoon Y-s et al, Clonally Expanded Novel Multipotent Stem Cells from Human Bone Marrow Regenerate Myocardium after Myocardial Infarcation, Journal of Clinical Investigation, February 2005
37 Stem Cell Therapy Successful Treats Heart Attacks in Animals; Two Patients Enrolled in Phase 1 Clinical Trials at John Hopkins, Ascribe Newswire, July 21, 2005; Trial to Test Stem Cells for Heart Attacks, Associated Press, July 26, 2005.
Research done with pigs; Phase 1 clinical trials are beginning at John Hopkins. 38Dohmann, Hans F.R., et al, Transendocardial Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Injection in Ischemic Heart Failure, Circulation, 112:521-526, 2005.
39University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Stem Cells with Heart Bypass Surgery Trial to Begin at University of Pittsburg, Science Daily, August 25, 2005.
40Dr. Orit Kollet (lead researcher), the Weizmann Institute, Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003 July 15;112 (2):160-169 doi: 10.1172/JCI200317902 “HGF, SDF-1, and MMP-9 are involved in stress-induced human CD34+ stem cell recruitment to the liver” http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=164291andrendertype=abstract. Research conducted with mice.
41Lead researcher: Walter C. Low, University of Minnesota, Journal of Cell Transplantation Vol. 12, pp. 201-213, 2003, “Neural Differentiation and Incorporation of Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells After Single Cell Transplantation into Blastocyst Stage Mouse Embryos.” Research conducted with mice.
42Functioning Neural Network Grown from Stem Cells, Newswise, July 14, 2005; Functioning Neural Network Grown from Stem Cells, Bioetech Week, August 3, 2005.
43Bastien, Judy, Double Dose Cure, The Daily Advertiser, August 9, 2005.
44Tang XP, et.al., [Clinical and experimental study of the therapeutic effect of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation on liver failure and heart damage in severe viral hepatitis patients.] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2005 Apr;13(4):259-63. Liver Disease Research Center, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China. Clinical trial.
45 Jacob Goldstein, Experimental Transplant Saves boy with Rare Disease, The Miami Herald, July 21, 2005.
46Hong SH, et.al., In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 May 20;330(4):1153-61. Research Institute of Biotechnology, Histostem Co., Seoul, Republic of Korea. Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells were used to treat the liver diseases.
47Tang XP, et.al., [Clinical and experimental study of the therapeutic effect of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation on liver failure and heart damage in severe viral hepatitis patients.] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2005 Apr;13(4):259-63. Liver Disease Research Center, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.
48Di Campli et.al., A human umbilical cord stem cell rescue therapy in a murine model of toxic liver injury. Dig Liver Dis. 2004 Sep;36(9):603-13. Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Research conducted with mice.
49Cytori Therapeutics Reports Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Home to, Engraft and Repair Injured Heart Muscle in Preclinical Model of Heart Attack-Like Injury, Today’s Stem Cell Research, July 19, 2005.
50Lead researcher: Dr. Atsushi Suzuki University of Tsukuba Institute of Clinical Medicine, PNAS 10.1073/pnas.0936260100, “Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (1-37) Converts Intestinal Epithelial Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells”
51Resnick, Mayer, Stem Cells Brings Fast Direct Improvement, Without Differentiation, in Acute Renal Failure, EurekAlert!, August 15, 2005. Research done in rats.
52Ma Y et al, Reconstruction of chemically burned rat corneal surface by bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells, Stem Cells, August 18, 2005. Research conducted using human stem cells on rats.
53Rojas, Mauricio, et al., Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Repair of the Injured Lung, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol. 33, pp. 145-152, May 12, 2005.
54BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Announces Adult Stem Cell Breakthrough for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Business Wire, July 18, 2005.
55Lead researcher: Shigeru Kinoshita, M.D., Ingenta Artificial Organs, January 2004 vol. 28 no. 1: 22-27, doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2004.07319.x, “Development of Cultivated Mucosal Epithelial Sheet Transplantation for Ocular Surface Reconstruction,” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2856541.stm. Clinical trial conducted in Japan.
56Breytenbach, Karen, Stem-Cell Boost for Heart Transplants, The Star, August, 24, 2005.
57 Rossi, Lisa, Human Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Effective in Animal Models of Incontinence, EurekaAlert!, August 31, 2005.
58Researchers Report that Cell Transplants Protect Brain Tissues by Fighting Immune Attack in Mice with MS-Like Disease, Research/Clinical Update, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, July 13, 2005.
59Lead researcher: Dr. Denise Faustman, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Immunobiology Laboratory, Science, Nov. 14, 2003; vol 302: pp 1123-1127, “Islet regeneration during the reversal of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.” Research conducted with mice.
The complete text of this article is available at: